National power is defined as the sum of all resources available to a nation in the pursuit of national objectives.
Elements of national power
National power stems from various elements, also called instruments or attributes; these may be put into two groups based on their applicability and origin - "national" and "social".
Important facets of geography such as location (geography), climate, topography, and size play major roles in the ability of a nation to gain national power. Location has an important bearing on foreign policy of a nation. The relation between foreign policy and geographic location gave rise to the discipline of geopolitics.
The presence of a water obstacle provided protection to nation states such as Great Britain, Japan, and the USA and allowed Japan to follow isolationist policies. The presence of large accessible seaboards also permitted these nations to build strong navies and expand their territories peacefully or by conquest. In contrast, Poland, with no obstacle for its powerful neighbours, even lost its independence as a nation, being partitioned among the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire, and Austria from 1795 onwards till it regained independence in 1918.
National Power was formerly an energy company based in the United Kingdom.
National Power was formed following the privatisation of the UK electricity market in 1990. In England and Wales the Central Electricity Generating Board, which was responsible for the generation and transmission of electricity, was split into four companies. Its generation (or upstream) activities were transferred to three generating companies - 'PowerGen', 'National Power', and 'Nuclear Electric' (later 'British Energy', eventually 'EDF Energy'); and its transmission (or downstream) activities to - the 'National Grid Company'.
National Power was the largest of these new companies having around 52 percent of the generating market. It later diversified into the supply market in November 1998 by purchasing the supply business of the regional electricity companyMidlands Electricity and created the Npower supply brand.
On 2 October 2000 following investor pressure the company demerged into two separate companies Innogy, which was responsible for the UK based operations, and International Power, which took over the international operations. Innogy is now known as 'RWE npower' owned by the German utility company RWE; and International Power is fully owned by the French company GDF Suez.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers.
Power stations may be located near a fuel source, at a dam site, or to take advantage of renewable energy sources, and are often located away from heavily populated areas. They are usually quite large to take advantage of the economies of scale. The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage at which it connects to the electric power transmission network.
The bulk power transmission network will move the power long distances, sometimes across international boundaries, until it reaches its wholesale customer (usually the company that owns the local electric power distribution network).
On arrival at a substation, the power will be stepped down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution level voltage. As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the required service voltage(s).
In the game, each player represents a company that owns power plants and tries to supply electricity to cities. Over the course of the game, the players will bid on power plants and buy resources to produce electricity to provide power to the growing number of cities in their expanding network.
The game comes with a double-sided board with a map of the United States of America on one side and Germany on the other. Each map consists of six regions featuring cities with connections of varying costs between them. The number of regions used is based on the number of players. Map design itself is a key feature in the strategy of game play as some areas of the map feature generally higher connection costs compared to other areas of the map.
The game is played in rounds, with each round consisting of 5 phases:
Norbert Anku, has said that the nation’s grid infrastructure is well structured to integrate nuclear energy once the power is generated ... And fortunately for us we have the opportunity to go nuclear, and the nation’s grid is strong enough to integrate the power and push it to industry for use,” Ing.
The T5 is one of the 10 mega projects WAPDA is implementing to double the existing hydel generation with addition of more than 9,000MW to the national grid in just eight years from 2022 to 2028/29 in a phased manner ... hydel electricity on an average/annum to the national grid.
Why? The best solution for times of high electric demand, such as during our hot Texas summers or February’s disaster, is to tie into the national power grid. Then Texas, like every other state, would never again be frozen without power or in rolling blackouts during Texas heatwaves.
... “And that might be a system that an entire community or nation depends on, like a power or gas system, or it might be an individual system in a home.” ... The BidenAdministration launched an initiative last month to bolster cybersecurity in the nation’s power grid.
... Our Power ... Protect Our Power,�the nation's leading organization dedicated to making the electric grid more secure and resilient, has outlined a set of grid-oriented funding priorities for consideration as Congress prepares to take up a major infrastructure improvement package.
BrianRyan is vice president of Innovation at NationalGridPartners, the innovation and investment arm of multinational energy company National Grid ... More than 60% of my own team at NGP are women, and that breadth of perspective has helped National Grid capture powerful insights into companywide innovation efforts.
In a bid to keep its power transmission and distribution system upgraded and stable, the NationalTransmission and DispatchCompany (NTDC) has installed three shunt reactors of 22-MVAR capacity on the 152km-long 500kV Dadu-Jamshoro transmission line emanating from the 500kV Dadu grid station.
NationalGrid’s $10.85bn acquisition deal with WesternPowerDistribution was the power industry’s biggest deal of Q1 2021 as deals worth $55.62bn were announced globally in the quarter, according to GlobalData’s deals database ... power industry deals in Q1 2021.
Brazil's worst drought in two decades will force the country to depend more heavily on costly thermal power plants to compensate for reduced hydroelectric generation, the NationalElectricGridOperator (ONS) director-general said ... saw no risk of power shortages or rationing.
TEMPORARY DUMSOR TO FIX OUR NATIONAL GRID... Fellow countrymen, we all attest to the poor maintenance culture in Ghana and how national assets wear & tear over a short period of time ... Can the organisers fix the national grid maintenance with engineers who are able to work while there is power still flowing in the high tension cables?.
The incident underscores just how vulnerable the nation’s critical infrastructure is to cyberattacks. “These pipelines are now, in many ways, on the frontlines of our national defense,” said Chatterjee, a Republican who previously chaired FERC, which regulates the power grid and evaluates pipeline applications.
KiwiPower’s technology will support the expansion of flexibility programs in the nation, increasing grid reliability and distributed energy resource monetisation opportunities across Japan’s fast growing, ... programs to help balance supply and demand on the nation’s grid.
May 10 (APP).NationalTransmission Despatch Company Limited (NTDC) is completing its gigantic projects ... The transmission line is transmitting 450 MW additional power from National Grid to K-Electric, which is a big relief for the people of Karachi during the holy month of Ramzan.