National power is defined as the sum of all resources available to a nation in the pursuit of national objectives.
Elements of national power
National power stems from various elements, also called instruments or attributes; these may be put into two groups based on their applicability and origin - "national" and "social".
Important facets of geography such as location (geography), climate, topography, and size play major roles in the ability of a nation to gain national power. Location has an important bearing on foreign policy of a nation. The relation between foreign policy and geographic location gave rise to the discipline of geopolitics.
The presence of a water obstacle provided protection to nation states such as Great Britain, Japan, and the USA and allowed Japan to follow isolationist policies. The presence of large accessible seaboards also permitted these nations to build strong navies and expand their territories peacefully or by conquest. In contrast, Poland, with no obstacle for its powerful neighbours, even lost its independence as a nation, being partitioned among the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire, and Austria from 1795 onwards till it regained independence in 1918.
National Power was formerly an energy company based in the United Kingdom.
National Power was formed following the privatisation of the UK electricity market in 1990. In England and Wales the Central Electricity Generating Board, which was responsible for the generation and transmission of electricity, was split into four companies. Its generation (or upstream) activities were transferred to three generating companies - 'PowerGen', 'National Power', and 'Nuclear Electric' (later 'British Energy', eventually 'EDF Energy'); and its transmission (or downstream) activities to - the 'National Grid Company'.
National Power was the largest of these new companies having around 52 percent of the generating market. It later diversified into the supply market in November 1998 by purchasing the supply business of the regional electricity companyMidlands Electricity and created the Npower supply brand.
On 2 October 2000 following investor pressure the company demerged into two separate companies Innogy, which was responsible for the UK based operations, and International Power, which took over the international operations. Innogy is now known as 'RWE npower' owned by the German utility company RWE; and International Power is fully owned by the French company GDF Suez.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers.
Power stations may be located near a fuel source, at a dam site, or to take advantage of renewable energy sources, and are often located away from heavily populated areas. They are usually quite large to take advantage of the economies of scale. The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage at which it connects to the electric power transmission network.
The bulk power transmission network will move the power long distances, sometimes across international boundaries, until it reaches its wholesale customer (usually the company that owns the local electric power distribution network).
On arrival at a substation, the power will be stepped down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution level voltage. As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the required service voltage(s).
In the game, each player represents a company that owns power plants and tries to supply electricity to cities. Over the course of the game, the players will bid on power plants and buy resources to produce electricity to provide power to the growing number of cities in their expanding network.
The game comes with a double-sided board with a map of the United States of America on one side and Germany on the other. Each map consists of six regions featuring cities with connections of varying costs between them. The number of regions used is based on the number of players. Map design itself is a key feature in the strategy of game play as some areas of the map feature generally higher connection costs compared to other areas of the map.
The game is played in rounds, with each round consisting of 5 phases:
It said the increase was on account of higher tariff of national grid and RLNG cost for its own power generation ... The price of electricity from national grid in April increased by 14pc, it said, adding that the price of power from national grid of stood at Rs10.66 per unit as compared to Rs9.387 per unit in March.
When our national power grid collapses, as it frequently does, plunging the entire country into medieval darkness, we murmur our national shame in private ...History teaches us again and again that when we “zone” or allocate political power simply on the basis of geography, only tribal demagogues with the vilest energy would seize it.
National grid operator Transpower issued an alert to power companies just before 8am on Thursday, warning of a risk of insufficient generation and reserves to meet demand ...Energy MinisterMegan Woods said the national grid operator worked with power companies to cut the load - including switching off hot water - and no-one lost power, she said.
In a petition, the power utility said it charged a reference fuel cost rate of Rs16.88 per unit in May, which turned out to be Rs28.22 per unit and resulted in a gap of Rs11.34 per unit because of about 143pc higher fuel cost of its own and 52pc on account of the power purchase cost, including that of the national grid.
An estate agent has warned house prices could fall by a third if a 112-mile pylon scheme to carry offshore wind power through East Anglia is approved ...NationalGrid said it was attempting to hit government green energy targets ... He said ... National Grid said increased renewable demands by 2030 meant existing power lines did not have the capacity ... .
"The Chevy Bolt EV is responsible for about 92 grams of carbon dioxide (CO2) per mile when accounting for emissions from the electric grid. (The CO2 calculations are based on the national average, but electric grid emissions vary considerably across the country.) The gasoline-powered Chevy Malibu causes over 320 grams per mile.
Mr Ryan also confirmed a microgeneration scheme, allowing homeowners to generate their own electricity and sell what they do not use back to the national grid, is in place ... “Suppliers now are starting to provide the ability for customers to sell power back that they generate on their own roofs, could be solar panels or other systems.
Transbiaga uses Liebherr LG 1750 lattice boom mobile cranes on at Gecama wind farm ... 67 wind turbines with a hub height of 120 metres are being erected to feed energy into the national power grid. The components of the concrete towers weigh up to 255 tonnes. The nacelle, including the generator, weighs 140 tonnes ... .
Further advancing Perpetua Resources' ESG and sustainable mining goals, the Project will be powered by the lowest carbon emissions grid in the nation and a portion of the antimony produced from the Project will be supplied to Ambri, a US-based company commercializing a low-cost liquid metal battery essential for the low-carbon energy transition.
Ohio just had a brush with rolling blackouts when a quarter of million people lost power due to storm damage ... During Ohio’s recent storms, grid officials implemented rolling blackouts in order to balance and restore power across the state ... power grid, could pose tremendous challenges to grid reliability over the next decade.
In a move to expedite independent renewable energy generation, Eskom has identified 18 winning bids for an auction that it took to market in April to offer independent power producers access to vacant land with direct access to the national grid ... This will add 1,800MW to the grid ...
Transpower had warned of a heightened risk of power shortages before 8am on Thursday. The national grid operator issued the New Zealand-wide emergency warning over a power shortage ... In an update just before 9.30am it said the grid emergency had ended and load management could be returned to normal.
In a kind of retaliation, KE stopped payments to the national grid with which its power supply contract expired in 2015 but supplies continued ... to KE for the onward release to the CentralPower Purchasing Agency (CPPA), which is the federal agent of the national grid company.