National power is defined as the sum of all resources available to a nation in the pursuit of national objectives.
Elements of national power
National power stems from various elements, also called instruments or attributes; these may be put into two groups based on their applicability and origin - "national" and "social".
Important facets of geography such as location (geography), climate, topography, and size play major roles in the ability of a nation to gain national power. Location has an important bearing on foreign policy of a nation. The relation between foreign policy and geographic location gave rise to the discipline of geopolitics.
The presence of a water obstacle provided protection to nation states such as Great Britain, Japan, and the USA and allowed Japan to follow isolationist policies. The presence of large accessible seaboards also permitted these nations to build strong navies and expand their territories peacefully or by conquest. In contrast, Poland, with no obstacle for its powerful neighbours, even lost its independence as a nation, being partitioned among the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire, and Austria from 1795 onwards till it regained independence in 1918.
National Power was formerly an energy company based in the United Kingdom.
National Power was formed following the privatisation of the UK electricity market in 1990. In England and Wales the Central Electricity Generating Board, which was responsible for the generation and transmission of electricity, was split into four companies. Its generation (or upstream) activities were transferred to three generating companies - 'PowerGen', 'National Power', and 'Nuclear Electric' (later 'British Energy', eventually 'EDF Energy'); and its transmission (or downstream) activities to - the 'National Grid Company'.
National Power was the largest of these new companies having around 52 percent of the generating market. It later diversified into the supply market in November 1998 by purchasing the supply business of the regional electricity companyMidlands Electricity and created the Npower supply brand.
On 2 October 2000 following investor pressure the company demerged into two separate companies Innogy, which was responsible for the UK based operations, and International Power, which took over the international operations. Innogy is now known as 'RWE npower' owned by the German utility company RWE; and International Power is fully owned by the French company GDF Suez.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers.
Power stations may be located near a fuel source, at a dam site, or to take advantage of renewable energy sources, and are often located away from heavily populated areas. They are usually quite large to take advantage of the economies of scale. The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage at which it connects to the electric power transmission network.
The bulk power transmission network will move the power long distances, sometimes across international boundaries, until it reaches its wholesale customer (usually the company that owns the local electric power distribution network).
On arrival at a substation, the power will be stepped down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution level voltage. As it exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again from the distribution voltage to the required service voltage(s).
In the game, each player represents a company that owns power plants and tries to supply electricity to cities. Over the course of the game, the players will bid on power plants and buy resources to produce electricity to provide power to the growing number of cities in their expanding network.
The game comes with a double-sided board with a map of the United States of America on one side and Germany on the other. Each map consists of six regions featuring cities with connections of varying costs between them. The number of regions used is based on the number of players. Map design itself is a key feature in the strategy of game play as some areas of the map feature generally higher connection costs compared to other areas of the map.
The game is played in rounds, with each round consisting of 5 phases:
The LagosChamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) has lamented that poor power supply remains a major burden on businesses in the country ... With the frequent collapses recorded by the national grid, we can no longer rely on a centralized power source. The way to go is renewable energy and decentralizing the national grid” Almona asserted.
The end of coal-fired power in Australia was essentially sealed this week with the nation's largest power company and an entire state pledging to go 'net zero' by 2035 ...Australians have already been warned to expect power shortages from mid-2023 as coal and gas generation plants are withdrawn from the national electricity grid.
It can't be because the truth is that we live in a sad and tough world where the superrich and powerful politicians own and manipulate the world economy, the financial markets and, above all, the energy sector ... Every island, every region could have its own independent power grid based on renewable energy.
The lieutenant governor outlined his priorities for a third term, including adding mandatory sentencing for use of a firearm in a crime and expansion of the state’s natural gas production as a hedge against reliance on wind power. He is also strongly opposed to going back on the national electrical grid ... We have a grid for a reason.
The national significance of the Mountain Valley Pipeline applies to DAPL as well.” ... Manchin in advocating for his bill has pointed out that wind and solar power have both struggled at times to connect to the nation’s grid ... lines that renewables need to connect to the grid as well.
The proposed amendment will change the per unit price at which utility companies are supposed to buy excess power produced by rooftop solar power producers ... According to most estimates, rooftop solar generators are selling less than 20MW to the national grid, for a total of Rs9.2 crore per month.
Meralco immediately activated the ILP and called on enrolled customers to temporarily de-load when NationalGridCorporation of the Philippines (NGCP) warned that power interruptions were imminent due to insufficient operating reserves on September 12.
On Monday, the whole country was thrown into darkness when the national grid crashed to zero megawatts (MW) for the eighth time this year ... Before now, the common excuse for grid collapse was always that the transmission lines could not wheel the power so generated by the generating companies (GENCOS).
Renewable energy business, BoomPower, wants to build a solar farm on nearly 3,000 acres of land in East Yorkshire... The facility will connect to NationalGridDrax Substation enabling the electricity to go directly into the National Grid transmission network ... https.//www.boom-power.co.uk/east-yorkshire-solar-farm-consultation-launched/.
And menaces like Ian can break power grids, flatten homes and leave many roads impassible, isolating people when they most need help ...Category 4 storms wreak such damage on power grids — such as snapping poles — that the NationalHurricaneCenter says blackouts can last weeks or even months.
27, the storm caused the country’s electricity grid to collapse, leaving 11 million people without power. And on Friday morning, NationalHurricaneCenter’s 8.00 am update ... Ian, which nearly met the Category 5 mark, is the most powerful storm so far this season.
DES MOINES — The continued integration of wind and solar into energy grids is a “no-brainer,” but will only come with a commitment to system-changing infrastructure, clean energy advocates said Wednesday ... … The development of robust transmission infrastructure must keep pace to connect these renewables to the power grid.”.